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VIDEO – Boosh (VEGI: CSE) An Award Winning Plant-Based Comfort Food Company With Products In ~ 400 Stores Nationwide

Posted by AGORACOM-JC at 5:42 PM on Monday, September 13th, 2021

If you’ve ever thought to yourself “how great would it be if my favourite comfort foods could only be healthier” than meet Boosh … an Award Winning Plant-Based Comfort Food Company whose products include:

  • Mac N Cheese and Peas
  • Veggie Bolognese
  • and other “Heat and Eat” delicious comfort foods that are 
    • Multiple Award winning 
    • 100% Plant-based, GMO and Gluten Free

The company has only been a public entity for a few months and it’s already making waves. 

  • Expanded to approximately 400 stores in less than 2 years including 
    •  Whole Foods, Safeway, Metro, IGA, Choices + many other retailers
  • An alliance with Beyond Meat 
  • Distributed by UNFI – one of the largest distributors in North America
  • Expanded into refrigerated section with new SKUs

Growth of The Plant-Based food Market is Undeniable…

The plant-based food market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 11.9% from 2020 to 2027 to reach $74.2 billion by 2027 according to ResearchAndMarkets.com. 

Watch this powerful interview with Boosh CEO Jim Pakulis.

VIDEO – Boosh (VEGI: CSE) An Award Winning Plant-Based Comfort Food Company With Products In Over 300 Stores Nationwide

Posted by Nicole Rojas at 4:50 PM on Thursday, June 24th, 2021

If you’ve ever thought to yourself “how great would it be if my favourite comfort foods could only be healthier” than meet Boosh … an Award Winning Plant-Based Comfort Food Company whose products include:

  • Mac N Cheese and Peas
  • Veggie Bolognese
  • and other “Heat and Eat” delicious comfort foods that are 
    • Multiple Award winning 
    • 100% Plant-based, GMO and Gluten Free

The company has only been a public entity for one month and it’s already making waves. 

  • Expanded to 300+ stores in less than 18 months Including 
    • Whole Foods, Safeway, Metro, IGA, Choices + many other retailers
  • An alliance with Beyond Meat 
  • Distributed by UNFI – one of the largest distributors in North America
  • Expanding into refrigerated section with new SKUs
  • Strong insider ownership at 29%

Growth of The Plant-Based food Market is Undeniable…

The plant-based food market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 11.9% from 2020 to 2027 to reach $74.2 billion by 2027 according to ResearchAndMarkets.com. 

Watch this powerful interview with Boosh CEO Jim Pakulis.

INTERVIEW: HPQ Silicon $HPQ Discusses Filing Of Provisional Patents For Silicon By-Products Superior To Graphite For Anode Material $FSLR $SPWR $CSIQ $NEP $PYR.ca

Posted by AGORACOM-Eric at 6:42 PM on Tuesday, December 29th, 2020

This is another demonstration of our multi-prong approach to becoming a key silicon based material provider for the battery industry and beyond

Bernard Tourillon, CEO, HPQ Silicon Resources

Watch yet another great interview with HPQ Silicon Resources on yet another major milestone

CLIENT FEATURE: American Creek $AMK.ca encounters high grade #Gold / #Silver at Treaty Creek, same system as Seabridge Gold $SA $SEA.ca $SKE.ca $TUD.ca $PVG $MRO.ca

Posted by AGORACOM-Eric at 9:49 AM on Thursday, January 31st, 2019

AMK: TSX-V, OTCBB: ACKRF

  • Intersected various mineralized zones
  • Most significant was 337.5m of continuous mineralization grading 0.76 g/t gold from 2 to 339.5m depth,
  • Including a higher grade intercept of 124.5m grading 0.98 g/t gold from 53.0 to 177.5m

OTHER RECENT HIGHLIGHTS

  • Reported on First Two 2018 Holes at Treaty Creek Including 1.036 G/T Gold over 121.8 Meters and First Sighting of Visible Gold in Core Read More
  • Encountered numerous high grade gold/silver intercepts in preliminary drilling at the new HC zone at the Treaty Creek Project Read More
  • Additional gold discovery of 5.1m of 9.57 g/t gold from 249.35m to 254.45m Read More

View Presentation

FULL DISCLOSURE: American Creek Resources is an advertising client of AGORA Internet Relations Corp.

$GGX.ca Gold Intersects 107 g/t Gold and 880 g/t Silver over 6.90 Meters Diamond Drilling Program at COD Vein – On the Gold Drop Property – Southern British Columbia $TUSK.ca $GZD.ca $K.ca

Posted by AGORACOM-Eric at 5:30 PM on Friday, January 18th, 2019
https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.agoracom.com/public/companies/logos/564602/hub/ggx_large.png
  • 107.5 g/t gold and 880 g/t silver over 6.90 meters core length
  • High-grade quartz vein intersection is near-surface, near high grade intersections of COD18-45, 46 and 67 indicating high grade ore shoot.
  • COD18-67: 129 g/t gold and 1,154 g/t silver over 7.28 meters

VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / January 18, 2019 / GGX Gold Corp. (TSX-v: GGX), (OTCQB: GGXXF), (FRA: 3SR2) (the “Company” or “GGX“) is pleased to announce it has received drill core analytical results for the final four drill holes (COD18-68 to COD18-71) of the November 2018 diamond drilling program at its Gold Drop Property near Greenwood, southern British Columbia. Drill hole COD18-70 intersected near-surface high-grade gold and silver with significant tellurium in the southwest part of the COD quartz vein. This high-grade intersection is in close-proximity to high-grade intersections in drill holes COD18-45, 46 and 67 indicating a high grade ore shoot. The mineralized COD vein system has been traced by drilling and / or trenching for approximately 400 meters strike length and is open to the northeast, at depth and possibly to the southwest. Highlights for COD18-70 include:

  • 107.5 g/t gold and 880 g/t silver over 6.90 meters core length (multiple samples greater than the upper 500 g/t analytical limit for tellurium).
  • High-grade quartz vein intersection is near-surface (18 to 24 meters vertical depth), near high grade intersections of COD18-45, 46 and 67 indicating high grade ore shoot.
  • Part of exploratory shallow drilling designed to define high-grade mineralization and expand the understanding of controls on mineralization.

(To view the full-size image, please click here)

The November 2018 diamond drilling program (11 drill holes: COD18-61 to COD18-71) tested the southwest region of the COD vein in an area of high-grade gold and silver mineralization. The COD vein is located within the Gold Drop Southwest Zone. Prior 2018 drill holes in this part of the COD vein intersected near-surface high-grade gold and silver mineralization. The COD vein strikes approximately northeast-southwest.


(To view the full-size image, please click here)

Intersections exceeding 1 g/t gold for drill holes COD18-68 to COD18-71 are listed in the table below. Since true widths cannot be accurately determined from the information available the core lengths (meters) are reported.

Hole ID From (m) To (m) Length (m) Au (g/t) Ag (g/t) Te (g/t) Description
COD18-68 19.49 22.25 2.76 8.77 85.4 56.3 Quartz vein and wall rock
COD18-68 incl. 20.86 22.35 1.39 14.47 131.8 87.9 Quartz vein and wall rock
COD18-69 19.75 20.42 0.67 1.24 9.59 6.55 quartz band
COD18-69 26.72 34.18 7.46 5.76 67.9 61.2 Quartz veins & wall rock; local quartz breccia
COD18-69 incl. 27.30 28.10 0.80 9.77 95 110 Quartz vein
COD18-69 incl. 31.20 31.60 0.40 70.9 569 278 Quartz vein with massive sulfide band
COD18-70 22.57 29.47 6.90 107.5 880 Quartz vein with tellurides
COD18-70 incl. 23.3 24.15 0.85 541 4532 >500 Quartz vein with tellurides
COD18-71 28.50 30.30 1.80 1.57 11.7 8.4 Alteration zone
Note: 1-meter core loss in COD18-70 between 22.57 – 29.47m.

All November 2018 drill holes were collared within 25 meters of prior 2018 drill holes COD18-45 and COD-46, the objective to define the high-grade mineralization in this part of the COD vein and to provide information on the controls on mineralization. Drill holes COD18-45 and COD18-46, drilled to the west at 45 and 50 degree-dips, intersected near-surface, high grade gold and silver mineralization in the COD vein (News Releases of August 15 and 22, 2018). Drill holes COD18-67and COD18-70, part of the November 2018 program, intersected high grade gold and silver mineralization in the same area. These holes were drilled slightly northeast at dips of 50 degrees (COD18-67) and 54 degrees (COD18-70) to intersect the COD vein at a shallower angle and test the continuity of the quartz veining and high-grade mineralization. Highlights of these four holes include (core length):

  • COD18-45: 50.1 g/t gold and 375 g/t silver over 2.05 meters
    (including 167.5 g/t gold, 1,370 g/t silver & >500 g/t tellurium over 0.46 meters).
  • COD18-46: 54.9 g/t gold and 379 g/t silver over 1.47 meters
    (including 223 g/t gold, 1,535 g/t silver & > 500 g/t tellurium over a 0.30 meters).
  • COD18-67: 129 g/t gold and 1,154 g/t silver over 7.28 meters
    (multiple samples exceeding upper 500 g/t analytical limit for tellurium).
  • COD18-70: 107.5 g/t gold and 880 g/t silver over 6.90 meters
    (multiple samples exceeding upper 500 g/t analytical limit for tellurium).
  • The close-spaced intersections of COD18-45, 46, 67 and 70 all occur within 18-25 meters vertical depth indicating a high-grade ore shoot.

Analytical results for drill holes COD18-61 to COD18-64 were reported in the Company’s News Release of January 9, 2018, the highlight being 28.0 g/t gold, 424.7 g/t silver and 150.4 g/t tellurium over 1.17 meters core length in COD18-63. Analytical results for drill holes COD18-64 to COD18-67 were reported in the Company’s News Release of January 11, 2019, the highlight being the intersection of 129 g/t gold and 1,154 g/t silver over 7.28 meters core length in COD18-67.

Holes COD18-61 to COD18-66 were drilled to the west and slightly northwest at dips of 45 to 60 degrees to intersect the approximately northeast striking vein(s). Holes COD18-67 to COD18-71 were drilled at dips of 45 to 60 degrees slightly northeast to intersect the vein(s) at a shallower angle, the objective being to test the continuity of the quartz veining and mineralization. Although drill holes COD18-67 and COD18-70 were not drilled perpendicular to the strike of the COD vein, they still show the exceptional high-grade nature of the vein, possibly being, or leading to, a “motherlode”-style feeder system. As the Company continues reminding of the old saying “we drill for structure and we drift for grade”, both holes indicate how potential drifting may encounter the vein in case a potential production decision can be made in the future. Drilling along veins at slight angles helps in locating possible “ore shoots” and gaining a structural understanding of its vertical and horizontal orientations/extensions for targeted follow-up drilling.

The drill core was split with half core samples securely packaged and delivered to ALS Canada Ltd. in Vancouver, BC. The core samples were analyzed for gold by Fire Assay-Atomic Absorption and for 48 elements (including silver and tellurium) by Four Acid – ICP-MS. Samples exceeding 100 g/t gold were re-analyzed for gold by Fire Assay – Gravimetric Finish. Samples exceeding 100 g/t silver were re-analyzed for silver by Four Acid – ICP-AES. Samples exceeding 1,500 g/t silver by Four Acid – ICP-AES were re-analyzed for silver by Fire Assay – Gravimetric Finish. Quality control (QC) samples were inserted at regular intervals.


(To view the full-size image, please click here)


(To view the full-size image, please click here)

Gold and silver bearing quartz veins occur in multiple regions on the Gold Drop property with high grade gold reported (samples exceeding 1 oz. / ton gold reported).

Historic gold and silver production occurred at the Gold Drop, North Star, Amandy and Roderick Dhu vein systems.

David Martin, P.Geo., a Qualified Person as defined by NI 43-101, is responsible for the technical information contained in this News Release.

To view the Original News release with pictures please go to the website or contact the company.

On Behalf of the Board of Directors,
Barry Brown, Director
604-488-3900
[email protected]

Investor Relations:
Mr. Jack Singh, 604-488-3900 [email protected]

” We don’t have to do this, we get to do this ”
The Crew

$GR.ca Great Atlantic Drilling Intersects 7.89% Zinc EQ over 34.3 Meters 100% Owned Keymet Base Metal – Precious Metal Project $SIC.ca $LAB.ca

Posted by AGORACOM-Eric at 9:18 AM on Friday, January 18th, 2019
https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.agoracom.com/public/companies/logos/564603/hub/GREATATLANTIC_LOGO_TESTER-e1480712241913.jpg
  • Drill results for holes 10 – 22 completed during 2018 exploration
  • Drilling conducted 1.5 km northwest of the historic Keymet Mine
  • Ky-18-14: 7.89% zinc equivalent over 34.3 m

GREAT ATLANTIC RESOURCES CORP. (TSXV.GR) (the “Company” or “Great Atlantic”) is pleased to announce it has received drill core analytical results for 13 holes (Ky-18-10 to Ky-18-22) completed during the 2018 diamond drilling program at its Keymet Base Metal – Precious Metal Property, located near Bathurst, northeast New Brunswick. The program was conducted in the northwest region of the property approximately 1.5 km northwest of the historic Keymet Mine. Highlights include (core length):

  • Ky-18-14: 7.89% zinc equivalent over 34.3 meters (From 46.20 m to 80.50 m)
  • Ky-18-10: 10.91% zinc equivalent over 3.27 meters (From 85.03m to 88.30 m)
  • Elmtree 12 vein: System traced to approximately 145 meters depth, open at depth
  • Elmtree 12 vein: Strike length of approximately 110 meters and open along strike

Vein with semi-massive sulfides in Drill Hole Ky-18-14 at Elmtree 12 Vein System

The 2018 drilling program (13 holes totalling 1,484 meters) was conducted in the northwest region of the Keymet property. Eleven drill holes (Ky-18-10 to Ky-18-18, Ky-18-21 and Ky-18-22) tested the Elmtree 12 vein system as in-fill drilling and along strike with some holes testing deeper than previous drilling. Company management speculate the Elmtree 12 vein system to be striking approximately north-south and sub-vertical. Great Atlantic had previously drilled six holes in the Elmtree 12 vein system during 2015 and 2017, intersecting zinc, copper, lead and silver bearing polymetallic veins (News Releases of February 23, 2016, December 20, 2017 and March 2, 2018). Two drill holes (Ky-18-19 and Ky-18-20) tested the continuation of another base metal and silver bearing vein southwest of the Elmtree 12 vein system. This vein was discovered during 2017 drilling (Ky-17-8: 18.8% Zn, 3.5% Cu and 576 g/t Ag over 1.27 meters core length – News Release of March 2, 2018).

Sulfide Bearing Veins in Drill Hole Ky-18-14 at Elmtree 12 Vein System

Intersections from 2015, 2017 and 2018 diamond drilling programs in the area of the Elmtree 12 vein system include the following (core length):

Hole ID From (m) To (m) Length (m) Zn Equiv.
(%)
Zn (%) Cu (%) Pb (%) Ag
(g/t)
Au
(g/t)
2015 Diamond Drill Holes:
Ky-15-3 30.10 32.20 2.10
3.28
Ky-15-3 60.80 62.60 1.80 22.77 16.68 1.11 0.44 152
Ky-15-4 90.07 94.35 4.28 10.44 8.68 0.29 0.2 44.8
2017 Diamond Drill Holes:

Ky-17-5 81.00 81.80 0.80 20.24 13.65 1.20 0.45 166
Ky-17-6 119.45 131.50 12.05 8.31 3.54 0.92 0.28 115.6
Ky-17-6 incl. 119.45 124.40 4.95 16.05 7.67 1.57 0.48 209.3
Ky-17-6 148.80 149.75 0.95




4.9
Ky-17-6 164 183.96 19.96 0.64
Ky-17-8 31.00 32.27 1.27 39.90 18.8 3.55 1.16 576
Ky-17-9 45.75 47.13 1.38 6.29 4.29 0.29 0.23 55.4
2018 Diamond Drill Holes:
Ky-18-10 85.03 88.30 3.27 10.91 7.91 0.53 0.21 77.2
Ky-18-10 incl. 85.74 86.74 1.00 25.59 16.80 1.60 0.55 223
Ky-18-11 108.70 109.40 0.70 4.95 3.89 0.11 0.14 33.9
Ky-18-12 78.82 84.55 5.73 7.88 4.07 1.19 0.23 39.2
Ky-18-12 incl. 78.82 79.64 0.82 14.03 10.90 1.07 0.09 24.8
Ky-18-12 incl. 83.35 84.55 1.20 21.65 8.90 3.81 0.60 157
Ky-18-13 80.00 81.00 1.00
1.76
Ky-18-14 46.20 80.50 34.30 7.89 3.29 0.88 0.26 112.6
Ky-18-14 incl. 46.20 49.20 3.00 56.23 9.04 9.19 2.16 1158
Ky-18-14 incl. 62.48 63.00 0.52 18.49 15.45 0.96 0.13 32
Ky-18-14 incl. 67.00 67.60 0.60 13.59 13.05 0.09 0.05 14
Ky-18-14 incl. 76.00 80.50 4.50 14.27 12.08 0.31 0.30 59.8
Ky-18-16 77.20 77.72 0.52 33.48 4.47 7.85 0.72 478
Ky-18-17 10.43 11.00 0.57 11.72 6.37 0.10 6.08 14.5
Ky-18-17 67.00 67.50 0.50 7.23 6.05 0.21 0.15 27.5
Ky-18-18 72.50 73.50 1.00 2.74 2.04 0.09 0.11 19.6
Ky-18-19 13.02 13.72 0.70
1.05
Ky-18-20 32.00 32.28 0.28 10.75 2.39 1.82 0.87 164
Ky-18-21 145.50 147.00 1.50 8.26 2.31 0.89 0.81 156.6

Zinc equivalent (% Zn Equiv.) values for drill hole intersections are based on the following metal prices (as of January 16, 2019): Zinc US$2,467 / tonne (US$1.119 / lb.), Lead US$1,953 / tonne (US$0.886 / lb.), Copper US$5,881 / tonne (US$2.668 / lb.) and Silver US$15.605 per troy ounce. Metal recoveries of 100% were applied in the zinc equivalent calculations. The zinc equivalent calculation is as follows: Zn Equiv. = 100 x ((Ag Price in grams x Ag Grade) + (Pb Price x 2204.6 x Pb Grade (%) / 100) + (Cu Price x 2204.6 x Cu Grade (%) / 100) + (Zn Price x 2204.6 x Zn Grade (%) / 100)) / Zn Price x 2204.6.

Drill holes Ky-18-10 to Ky-18-13 were in-fill holes drilled east to slightly southeast at 45 to 57 degree dips. Drill holes Ky-18-14, Ky-18-21 and Ky-18-22 were collared closer to the vein system and at steeper dips (78-83 degrees) to intersect the vein system at a shallower angle to test continuity of mineralization along dip, locate possible ore shoots and gain a structural understanding of the vein’s vertical and horizontal orientations / extensions for targeted follow-up drilling. Hole Ky-18-21, drilled under Ky-18-14, tested the zone deeper. The mineralized intersection at 145.5-147 meters in this hole is the deepest intersection by the Company in the Elmtree 12 vein system and indicates the system is open at depth at this location. This interval also returned anomalous values for cobalt, including 0.07% Co over 1.0 meter core length.

The meta-sediments in the lower half of Ky-18-22 are intruded my mafic dykes, possibly cutting the vein system.

Drill holes Ky-18-15 and Ky-18-16 tested the extension of the Elmtree 12 vein system to the north. Ky-18-15 was drilled slightly northwest (approximate 55 degree dip). Ky-18-16 was drilled slightly southwest (approximate 73 degree dip). The metal rich intersection in Ky-18-16 indicates the mineralized system is open to the north at slightly deeper levels.

Drill holes Ky-18-17 and Ky-18-18 tested the Elmtree 12 vein system south of previous Company drilling. Mineralized veins and / or alteration was intersected in both holes, indicating the mineralized system to be open to the south.

Drill holes Ky-18-19 and Ky-18-20 were located southwest of the known extent of the Elmtree 12 vein system. These holes tested the extension of the high grade vein intersected in 2017 hole Ky-17-8. Ky-18-19 was drilled slightly northwest at an approximate 66 degree dip to intersect the vein deeper. Hole Ky-18-19 did not confirm the down-dip extension of the mineralized vein. Hole Ky-18-20 was drilled southwest at an approximate 55 degree dip. This hole intersected a near-surface narrow copper, lead, zinc and silver bearing zone (approximate 26 meters vertical depth) approximately 10 meters south of the high grade vein intersection of hole Ky-17-8.

Drill core from the 2018 program was geologically logged and sampled at a secure location in Miramichi, New Brunswick. Drill core samples were submitted to ALS Canada for gold analysis (Fire Assay-AA) and for 33 element analysis (including copper, lead, zinc and silver) by Four Acid and ICP-AES. Samples exceeding 1,500 g/t silver were re-analyzed for silver by Fire Assay-Gravimetric Finish. Quality Control samples were included as part of the sample submission. A Qualified Person verified the 2015, 2017 and 2018 exploration data for Great Atlantic. The Qualified Person managed these exploration programs at the Keymet Property.

Historic Keymet Mine (1950s)

The Company’s focus since acquiring the Keymet Property has been the northwest region of the property in the area of reported polymetallic veins with most work in the area of the Elmtree 12 copper-lead-zinc-silver bearing vein system. At least seven vein occurrences with lead, zinc and +/- copper, silver and gold are reported in this region of the property in addition to the polymetallic veins reported at the historic Keymet Mine (source: New Brunswick Dept. of Energy and Resource Development Mineral Occurrence Database). The Keymet Mine operated during the mid-1950s, producing copper, lead, zinc and silver. Production at this mine was terminated due to a fire at the site.

Significant precious metal – base metal deposits are reported within 4 km of the Keymet Property. The Elmtree gold deposits are located within 3 km west-southwest of the Keymet Property. The historic Nigadoo River Mine is located approximately 4 km south of the Keymet Property. Polymetallic massive sulfide veins were mined at the Nigadoo River Mine during the 1960s and 1970s with copper, lead, zinc and silver being produced. The N.B Dept. of Energy and Resource Development Mineral Occurrence Database reports shaft depth and production totals at this historic mine. Production during 1967-1971 is reported as 1.126 million tonnes at 2.2% Pb, 2.1% Zn, 0.24% Cu and 92.57 g/t Ag. Production during 1973-1977 (after a 2 year closure) is reported to be 0.733 million tonnes (only partial metal grades reported). The shaft is reported to at least 470 meter deep.

The Nash Creek Zinc Project of Callinex Mines Inc. is located approximately 15 kilometers northwest of the Keymet Property. Callinex Mines Inc. recently filed a 43-101 Technical Report (effective date March 21, 2018) which was completed by Tetra Tech Canada Inc. The report includes updated mineral resource estimates for the Nash Creek Zinc Project (Hickey and Hayes Zones) using a 1.5% Zn Equiv. cut-off. This included 13,592,000 tonnes indicated estimated resources at 2.68% Zn, 0.58% Pb and 17.8 g/t Ag; and 5,929,000 tonnes inferred estimated resources at 2.68% Zn, 0.47% Pb and 13.9 g/t Ag (source: Callinex Mines Inc. Website).

Readers are warned that mineralization at the Elmtree gold deposits, historic Nigadoo River Mine and Nash Creek Zinc Project is not necessarily indicative of mineralization on the Keymet Property.

Access to the Keymet Property is excellent with paved roads transecting the property, including a provincial highway. The property covers an area of approximately 3,400 hectares and is 100% owned by the Company.

Readers are warned that historical records referred to in this News Release have been examined but not verified by a Qualified Person. Further work is required to verify that historical records referred to in this News Release are accurate.

David Martin, P.Geo., a Qualified Person as defined by NI 43-101 and VP Exploration for Great Atlantic, is responsible for the technical information contained in this News Release.

On Behalf of the board of directors

“Christopher R Anderson

Mr. Christopher R Anderson ” Always be positive, strive for solutions, and never give up “
President CEO Director
604-488-3900 – Dir

About Great Atlantic Resources Corp.: Great Atlantic Resources Corp. is a Canadian exploration company focused on the discovery and development of mineral assets in the resource-rich and sovereign risk-free realm of Atlantic Canada, one of the number one mining regions of the world. Great Atlantic is currently surging forward building the company utilizing a Project Generation model, with a special focus on the most critical elements on the planet that are prominent in Atlantic Canada, Antimony, Tungsten and Gold.

Technologies of #Blockchain Part 3: Cryptography, Scaling, and Consensus #KoreConx

Posted by AGORACOM-JC at 4:19 PM on Wednesday, December 5th, 2018

Kiran Garimella

In Part 2, we saw how a simple concept of a linked list can morph into complex, distributed systems. Obviously, this is a simple, conceptual evolution leading up to blockchain, but it’s not the only way distributed systems can arise. Distributed systems need coordination, fault tolerance, consensus, and several layers of technology management (in the sense of systems and protocols).

Distributed systems also have a number of other complex issues. When the nodes in a distributed system are also decentralized (from the perspective of ownership and control), security becomes essential. That’s where complex cryptographic mechanisms come into play. The huge volume of transactions makes it necessary to address performance of any shared or replicated data, thus paving the way to notions of scaling, sharding, and verification of distributed data to ensure that it did not get out of sync or get compromised. In this segment, we will see that these ideas are not new; they were known and have been working on for several decades.

Cryptography

One important requirement in distributed systems is the security of data and participants. This motivates the introduction of cryptographic techniques. Ralph Merkle, for example, introduced in 1979 the concept of a binary tree of hashes (now known as a Merkle tree). Cryptographic hashing of blocks was implemented in 1991 by Stuart Haber & W. Scott Stornetta. In 1992, they incorporated Merkle trees into their scheme for efficiency.

The hashing functions are well-researched, standard techniques that provide the foundation for much of modern cryptography, including the well-known SSL certificates and the https protocol. Merkle’s hash function, now known as the Merkle-Damgard construction, is used in SHA-1 and SHA-2. Hashcash uses SHA-1 (original SHA-0 in 1993, SHA-1 in 1995), now using the more secure SHA-2 (which actually consists of SHA-256 and SHA-512). The more secure SHA-3 is the next upgrade.

Partitioning, Scaling, Replicating, and Sharding

Since the core of a blockchain is the database in the form of a distributed ledger, the question of how to deal with the rapidly growing size of the database becomes increasingly urgent. Partitioning, replicating, scaling, and sharding are all closely related concepts. These techniques, historically used in enterprise systems, are now being employed in blockchains to address performance limitations.

As with all things blockchain, these are not new concepts either, since large companies have been struggling with these issues for many decades, though not from a blockchain perspective. The intuitively obvious solution for a growing database is to split it up into pieces and store the pieces separately. Underlying this seemingly simple solution lies a number of technical challenges, such as how would the application layer know in which “piece” any particular data record would be found, how to manage queries across multiple partitions of the data, etc. While these scalability problems are tractable in enterprise systems or in ecosystems that have known and permitted participants (i.e., the equivalent of permissioned blockchains), it gets trickier in public blockchains. The permutations for malicious strategies seem endless and practically impossible to enumerate in advance. The need to preserve reasonable anonymity also increases the complexity of robust solutions.

Verification and Validation

Zero-knowledge proofs (ZKP) are techniques to prove (to another party, called the verifier) that the prover knows something without the prover having to disclose what it is that the prover knows. (This sounds magical, but there are many simple examples to show how this is possible that I’ll cover in a later post.) ZKP was first described in a paper, “The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof-Systems” in 1985 by Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, and Charles Rackoff (apparently, it was developed much earlier in 1982 but not published until 1985). Zcash, a bitcoin-based cryptocurrency, uses ZKPs (or variants called zkSNARKs, first introduced in 2012 by four researchers) to ensure validity of transactions without revealing any information about the sender, receiver, or the amount itself.

Some of these proofs and indeed the transactions themselves could be implemented by automated code, popularly known as smart contracts. These were first conceived by Nick Szabo in 1996. Despite the name, it is debatable if these automated pieces of code can be said to be smart given the relatively advanced current state of artificial intelligence. Similarly, smart contracts are not quite contracts in the legal sense. A credit card transaction, for example, incorporates a tremendous amount of computation that includes checking for balances, holds, fraud, unusual spending patterns, etc., with service-level agreements and contractual bindings between various parties in the complex web of modern financial transactions, but we don’t usually call this a ‘smart contract’. In comparison, even the current ‘smart contracts’ are fairly simplistic.

Read Part 1: The Foundations and Part 2: Distributed Systems

Source: https://www.koreconx.com/2018/11/28/technologies-blockchain-part-3-cryptography-scaling-consensus/

Technologies of #Blockchain – Part 2: Distributed Systems #KoreConX

Posted by AGORACOM-JC at 4:11 PM on Wednesday, December 5th, 2018

Kiran Garimella

We saw in Part 1 that linked lists provide the conceptual foundation for blockchain, where a ‘block’ is a package of data and blocks are strung together by some type of linking mechanism such as pointers, references, addresses, etc. In this Part 2, we will see how this simple concept gives rise to powerful ideas that lay the foundation for distributed systems.

What happens when one of the links in the linked list or one of the computers (aka, ‘nodes’) in a distributed system falls sick (and responds slowly), gets taken down (‘hacked’), or dies? How does the full list (or chain) recover from such tragic events? This brings us to the notion of fault tolerance in distributed systems. Once changes are made to the data in one of the nodes (blocks), how do we ensure that the same information is consistent with other nodes? That introduces the requirement for consensus.

Pushing the analogy of the linked list a bit further, algorithms that manage linked lists are carefully designed not to break the list. Appending links to the end or the front, for that matter, is an easy operation (we just need to make sure that the markers that indicate the start and end of the list are updated correctly). However, removing a link (or member of the chain) or adding one is a bit trickier. When it is necessary to remove or insert into the middle of the list, it’s a bit more complicated, but a well-understood problem with known solutions. We won’t go into the specifics in this article because the intent is not to describe these operations but to convey a high-level historical perspective.

In distributed systems, fault tolerance becomes a very important topic. In one sense, it is a logical extension to managing a linked list on a single computer. Obviously, in real-world applications, each of the nodes in a distributed system are economic entities that depend on other economic entities to achieve their goals. Faults within the system must be minimized as much as possible. When faults are inevitable, recovery must be as quick and complete as possible. Computer scientists began studying the methods of fault tolerance in the mid-1950s, resulting in the first fault-tolerant computer, SAPO, in Czechoslovakia.

Besides fault tolerance, when information needs to be added to the distributed system (a bit like adding, deleting, or updating the elements of a linked list), the different parties must agree. The reason for agreement is that the data that goes into the ‘linked list’ is data that arises out of transactions between these parties. Without agreement, imagine the chaos! My node would record that I sent you $90 while your node would record only $19! Or, if I send you payment for a product, I expect to receive the product. There should be agreement, settlement, and reconciliation between the transacting parties. A stronger requirement in distributed systems is that once the parties agree to something, the data that is agreed upon cannot be changed by one of the parties without the concurrence of the other party or parties. The strongest version of this requirement is ‘immutability’, where it is technically impossible to make any changes to data that is agreed to and committed to the chain.

Fault-Tolerance and Consensus

Distributed systems, therefore, require fault-tolerance, consensus, and immutability in varying degrees, depending on the needs of the business. Mechanisms for fault-tolerance and consensus evolved since the early days. Notable developments are:

  • Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) by Lamport, Shostak, and Pease in 1982, to deal with situations where one or more of the nodes in the distributed system become faulty or malicious.
  • Proof-of-Work (POW), first described in 1993 and the term coined in 1999, which is a technique for providing economic disincentives for malicious attacks. A precursor idea of POW was proposed in 1992 by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor, as a means to combatting junk mail—a problem that was already a significant nuisance way back in 1992!* Their solution was to require a sender to solve a computational problem that was easy enough for sending emails normally but becomes computationally expensive for sending massive amounts of junk emails.
  • Hashcash, a POW algorithm, was proposed by Adam Back in 1997. This was used as the basis of POW in bitcoin by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, which brought awareness of POW to a much wider audience.
  • A high-performance version of BFT, called Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT), by Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov, in 1999; and so on.
  • Paxos**, a family of consensus algorithms, has its roots in a 1988 work by Dwork, Lynch, and Stockmeyer, and first published in 1998 (even though conceived several years earlier) by Leslie Lamport.
  • Raft consensus algorithm was developed by Diego Ongaro and John Ousterhout. Published in 2014, it was designed to be a more understandable alternative to Paxos.

State machine replication (SMR) is a framework for fault-tolerance and consensus is a way to resolve conflicts or achieve agreement on the state values. SMR’s beginnings are in the early 1980s, with an influential paper by Leslie Lamport, “Using Time Instead of Timeout for Fault-Tolerant Distributed Systems” in 1984.

In Part 3, we will do a high-level review of mechanisms designed to keep distributed systems secure, consistent, and able to handle large volumes of transactions.

Read Part 1: The Foundations and Part 3: Cryptography, Scaling, and Consensus.


*Their paper, “Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail”, begins with a charming expression of exasperation: “Some time ago one of us returned from a brief vacation, only to find 241 messages in our reader.”

**No known relation to the blockchain company, Paxos.com

Source: https://www.koreconx.com/2018/11/20/technologies-blockchain-part-2-distributed-systems/

Technologies of #Blockchain – Part 1: The Foundations #KoreConX

Posted by AGORACOM-JC at 4:03 PM on Wednesday, December 5th, 2018

Kiran Garimella

Technologies of Blockchain – Part 1: The Foundations

Blockchain is not just a single technology but a package of a number of technologies and techniques. The rich lexicon in the blockchain includes terms such as Merkle trees, sharding, state machine replication, fault tolerance, cryptographic hashing, zero-knowledge proofs, zkSNARKS, and other exotic terms.

In this four-part series, we will provide a very high-level overview of each of the main components of technology. In reality, the number of technologies, variations, configurations, and considerations of trade-offs are numerous. Each piece in this puzzle was motivated by certain business requirements and technical considerations.

In this first part, we look at the origins of the ‘chain’ and the most important technological advancement that makes blockchain (and all e-commerce) possible, i.e., the Internet.

While there have been genuine innovations within the last decade, blockchain’s underlying technologies are mostly quite old (in computer science time scale). Let us unpack a typical blockchain to trace out the origins of the constituent technologies. In this short post, I’ll only point to a very small (some may say, infinitesimally small) subset of the historical origin of technologies that make the modern blockchain possible. I’ll make no attempt to trace the development of these concepts from origin to the present time (that would fill up several books). The fact that blockchain’s technologies have a long and respectable history should help us gain confidence that blockchain, as a technology, is not some fly-by-night, newfangled idea cooked up by the crypto fandom.

What is less certain and much more controversial is the economic justification for blockchain (or at least some types of blockchain), ranging from the unrealistic expectation that it is a panacea for all of humankind’s ills (most optimistically, for social and economic inequities), to the total and premature dismissal of blockchain in its entirety.

The Beginnings

At the conceptual heart of blockchain is the ‘chain’. By definition, the links of the chain are, well, linked. It’s a list of data elements or packets of information (in blockchain, these are called ‘blocks’) that are linked. A blockchain is, therefore, a type of linked list.

The concept of a linked list was defined by pioneers of computer science and artificial intelligence, Alan Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon, way back in 1955-56.

In the early days of computer science, data and processing power lived on individual computers. Soon, people wanted these computers to ‘talk’ to each other. The grand idea of an Intergalactic Computer Network was put forth by J. C. R. Licklider as early as 1963. Unfortunately, even after half a century of rapid development, we have achieved only a planetary-wide Internet so far. An ‘intergalactic’ network is still a few years away!*

These ideas and the need to connect dispersed computers gave rise to wide-scale distributed systems in the 1960s-70s, with the advent of ARPANET and Ethernet. Technically, these linked computers are not necessarily treated in the same way as a traditional linked list that lived on one computer, but the conceptual idea is similar. When data and computational power get dispersed, layers of management, coordination, and security become increasingly important.

Blockchain would not exist without the Internet, which itself would not exist without TCP/IP, developed by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf in the 1970s and ‘80s. Along the way, some scientists managed to have some fun too. They carried out an April Fools prank in 1990 by issuing an RFC (1149) for IPoAC protocol (IP over Avian Carriers, i.e., carrier pigeons). The punch line was delivered in April 2001 when a Linux user group implemented CPIP (Carrier Pigeon Internet Protocol) by sending nine data packets over three miles using carrier pigeons. They reported packet loss of 55%. A joke that takes a decade to pull off is practically Saturday night live comedy in Internet time scale!

In part 2, we will see how the extension of the concept of linked list on the Internet leads to distributed systems, the attending challenges, and their solutions.

Source: https://www.koreconx.com/2018/11/14/technologies-blockchain-part-1-foundations/

Beauce Gold Fields Secures $550,000 Financing Required for Listing on Tsx Venture Exchange $BGF.ca $HPQ.ca

Posted by AGORACOM-JC at 10:32 AM on Wednesday, December 5th, 2018

Hpq large

  • HPQ subsidiary, Beauce Gold Fields Inc  has raised the minimum $550,000 concurrent private placement required for it’s listing on the TSX-Venture Exchange under the reserved stock symbol BGF
  • Following the satisfactory review, the Date of Record and subsequent Distribution and Listing Date will be announced.

MONTREAL, Dec. 05, 2018 — HPQ Silicon Resources Inc (“HPQ”) (TSX Venture: HPQ) is pleased to inform shareholders that HPQ subsidiary, Beauce Gold Fields Inc (“BGF”) has raised the minimum $550,000 concurrent private placement required for it’s listing on the TSX-Venture Exchange (“Exchange”) under the reserved stock symbol BGF.

Patrick Levasseur, President and CEO of HPQ Beauce Gold Fields subsidiary stated, “I would like to thank everyone who has subscribed to the private placement for the listing of BGF.  This will allow HPQ to unlock the full potential value of the Beauce Gold property through a fresh new entity starting with a tight capital structure.” Mr. Levasseur also stated  “The Beauce is Canada’s last underexplored historical placer mining camp. It’s similar to the placer to hard rock exploration projects in the Yukon or the Cariboo district in BC, that were both placer gold mining camps as well, but recently had major gold discoveries.  Combining our large claims holding in St-Simon-Les-Mines together with our increasing knowledge of the geology, we believe we have narrowed the search in exploring for a hard rock gold deposit”

TSX-V Conditional Approval and Concurrent Private Placement

The Listing of BGF was conditional to closing the private placement.  The listing is also conditional to the submission of the Listing Application, the required financial statements plus various supporting documents that HPQ is submitting to the Exchange for satisfactory review.

Following the satisfactory review, the Date of Record and subsequent Distribution and Listing Date will be announced.

In this regard, the BGF’s notice for filing in connection with this Private Placement will be the following basis:

  1. 3,500,000 hard-cash units (HC Units) at the price of $0.10 per HC Unit for total of $350,000.00
  2. 1,666,666 flow-through units (FT Units) at the price of $0.12 per FT Unit for total of $200,000.00

Each HC Unit will be comprised of one common share and one warrant to purchase one common share at the price of $0.15 per share for two years following the closing date. Each FT Unit will be comprised of one flow-through common share and one-half of one warrant, with each full warrant allowing the holder to purchase one common share at the exercise price of $0.18 per share for a period of two years following the closing date.

Beauce Gold Fields – A Tight Capital Structure at Listing

Transactions Number of Shares
Private Placement to HPQ 200,000
Spin-out – Shares at $0.10 per Share 13,350,000
HPQ Direct Ownership (≈ 15%) 2,870,000
Distributed to HPQ Shareholders (≈55%) 10,680,000
Flow Through Private Placement at $0.12 per Share 1,666,666
Hard Cash Private Placement at $0.10 per Share 3,500,000
BGF Shares outstanding at Listing 18,716,666
Warrants- Private Placement 4,333,333
Warrants – HPQ warrant holders * 4,158,350
Stock Option Plan (rolling 10%) 1,900,000
Fully Diluted Capital 29,108,349

* Subject to adjustment based on the final HPQ Ratio upon the Ex-Distribution Date.

About Beauce Gold Fields

BGF is a wholly owned subsidiary of HPQ Silicon into which HPQ gold assets were transferred.   Subject to approval by TSX-V, HPQ is in the process of listing BGF as a new public junior gold company, following the approval by shareholders during HPQ AGM held on Aug. 10, 2018, of the proposed terms of the plan of arrangement.

The Beauce Gold Fields project is a unique, historically prolific gold property located in the municipality of Saint-Simon-les-Mines in the Beauce region of Southern Quebec. Comprising of a block of 152 claims 100% owned by HPQ, the project area hosts a six kilometre long unconsolidated gold-bearing sedimentary unit (a lower saprolite and an upper brown diamictite). Textural observations (angularity) of gold nuggets suggest a relatively proximal source and therefore a short transport distance. The gold in saprolite indicates a close proximity to a bedrock source of gold, providing possible further exploration discoveries.  The property was also hosts numerous historical gold mines that were active from 1860s to the 1960s (see HPQ SEDAR-filed report).

Find more information at: www.beaucegold.com

About HPQ Silicon

HPQ Silicon Resources Inc. is a TSX-V listed resource company planning to become a vertically integrated and diversified High Purity, Solar Grade Silicon Metal (SoG Si) producer and a manufacturer of multi and monocrystalline solar cells of the P and N types, required for production of high performance photovoltaic conversion.

HPQ’s goal is to develop, in collaboration with industry leaders, PyroGenesis (TSX-V:PYR) and Apollon Solar, that are experts in their fields of interest, the innovative PUREVAPTM “Quartz Reduction Reactors (QRR)”, a truly 2.0 Carbothermic process (patent pending), which will permit the transformation and purification of quartz (SiO2) into high purity silicon metal (Si) in one step and reduce by a factor of at least two-thirds (2/3) the costs associated with the transformation of quartz (SiO2) into SoG Si. The pilot plant equipment that will validate the commercial potential of the process is on schedule to start mid-2019.

Disclaimers:

This news release does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sale of any of the securities in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful. The securities have not been and will not be registered under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “U.S. Securities Act”) or the securities laws of any state of the United States and may not be offered or sold within the United States or to, or for the account or the benefit of, U.S. persons (as defined in Regulation S un der the U.S.  Securities Act) unless registered under the U.S. Securities Act and applicable state securities laws or pursuant to an exemption from such registration requirements.

This press release contains certain forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, statements containing the words “may”, “plan”, “will”, “estimate”, “continue”, “anticipate”, “intend”, “expect”, “in the process” and other similar expressions which constitute “forward-looking information” within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements reflect the Company’s current expectation and assumptions, and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, our expectations regarding the acceptance of our products by the market, our strategy to develop new products and enhance the capabilities of existing products, our strategy with respect to research and development, the impact of competitive products and pricing, new product development, and uncertainties related to the regulatory approval process. Such statements reflect the current views of the Company with respect to future events and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties and other risks detailed from time-to-time in the Company’s on-going filings with the securities regulatory authorities, which filings can be found at www.sedar.com. Actual results, events, and performance may differ materially. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements either as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable securities laws. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

For further information contact

Bernard J. Tourillon, Chairman, President and CEO HPQ Tel (514) 907-1011
Patrick Levasseur, COO HPQ, President and CEO BGF Tel: (514) 262-9239
www.HPQSilicon.com

Shares outstanding: 222,284,053